POWER SYSTEM II Notes
Objective : Power System II Notes – PS II Notes – PS II Pdf notes
This course is an extension of Power systems-I course. It deals with basic theory of transmission lines modeling and their performance analysis. Also this course gives emphasis on mechanical design of transmission lines, cables and insulators.
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Transmission Line Parameters
Types of conductors – calculation of resistance for solid conductors – Calculation of inductance for single phase and three phase, single and double circuit lines, concept of GMR & GMD, symmetrical and asymmetrical conductor configuration with and without transposition, Numerical Problems. Calculation of capacitance for 2 wire and 3 wire systems, effect of ground on capacitance, capacitance calculations for symmetrical and asymmetrical single and three phase, single and double circuit lines, Numerical Problems.
Performance of Short and Medium Length Transmission Lines
Classification of Transmission Lines – Short, medium and long line and their model representations – Nominal- T, Nominal-Pie and A, B, C, D Constants for symmetrical & Asymmetrical Networks, Numerical Problems. Mathematical Solutions to estimate regulation and efficiency of all types of lines – Numerical Problems.
Performance of Long Transmission Lines
Long Transmission Line-Rigorous Solution, evaluation of A,B,C,D Constants, Interpretation of the Long Line Equations, Incident, Reflected and Refracted Waves -Surge Impedance and SIL of Long Lines, Wave Length and Velocity of Propagation of Waves – Representation of Long Lines – Equivalent-T and Equivalent Pie network models (numerical problems).
UNIT – IV
Power System Transients
Types of System Transients – Travelling or Propagation of Surges – Attenuation, Distortion, Reflection and Refraction Coefficients – Termination of lines with different types of conditions – Open Circuited Line, Short Circuited Line, T-Junction, Lumped Reactive Junctions (Numerical Problems). Bewley’s Lattice Diagrams (for all the cases mentioned with numerical examples).
Various Factors Governing the Performance of Transmission line
Skin and Proximity effects – Description and effect on Resistance of Solid Conductors – Ferranti effect – Charging Current – Effect on Regulation of the Transmission Line, Shunt Compensation. Corona – Description of the phenomenon, factors affecting corona, critical voltages and power loss, Radio Interference.
Overhead Line Insulators
Types of Insulators, String efficiency and Methods for improvement, Numerical Problems – voltage distribution, calculation of string efficiency, Capacitance grading and Static Shielding.
Sag and Tension Calculations
Sag and Tension Calculations with equal and unequal heights of towers, Effect of Wind and Ice on weight of Conductor, Numerical Problems – Stringing chart and sag template and its applications.
Types of Cables, Construction, Types of Insulating materials, Calculations of Insulation resistance and stress in insulation, Numerical Problems. Capacitance of Single and 3-Core belted cables, Numerical Problems. Grading of Cables – Capacitance grading, Numerical Problems, Description of Inter-sheath grading, HV Cables.
TEXT BOOKS: Power System-II Notes
- A Text Book on Power System Engineering by M.L.Soni, P.V.Gupta, U.S.Bhatnagar, A.Chakrabarthy, Dhanpat Rai & Co Pvt. Ltd.
- Electrical power systems – by C.L.Wadhwa, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers,1998.
REFERENCE BOOKS: Power System-II Notes
- Power system Analysis-by John J Grainger William D Stevenson, TMC Companies, 4th edition
- Power System Analysis and Design by B.R.Gupta, Wheeler Publishing.
- Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat – TMH Edition..
- Modern Power System Analysis by I.J.Nagaraj and D.P.Kothari, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition.