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Switchgear and Protection Notes Details
UNIT – I Circuit Breakers-1
Circuit Breakers: Elementary principles of arc interruption, Recovery, Restriking Voltage and Recovery voltages.- Restriking Phenomenon, Average and Max. RRRV, Numerical Problems – Current Chopping and Resistance Switching – CB ratings and Specifications: Types and Numerical Problems. – Auto reclosures
UNIT – II Circuit Breakers-2
Description and Operation of following types of circuit breakers: Minimum Oil Circuit breakers, Air Blast Circuit Breakers, Vacuum and SF6 circuit breakers.
UNIT – III Electromagnetic and Static Relays
The principle of Operation and Construction of Attracted armature, Balanced Beam, induction Disc and Induction Cup relays. Relays Classification: Instantaneous, DMT and IDMT types. Application of relays: Over current/ Under voltage relays, Direction relays, Differential Relays, and Percentage Differential Relays. Universal torque equation, Distance relays: Impedance, Reactance and Mho and Off-Set Mho relay, Characteristics of Distance Relays and Comparison. Static Relays: Static Relays verses Electromagnetic Relays
UNIT – IV Generator Protection
Protection of generators against Stator faults, Rotor faults, and Abnormal Conditions. Restricted Earth fault and Inter-turn fault Protection. Numerical Problems on % Winding Unprotected.
UNIT – V Transformer Protection
Protection of transformers: Percentage Differential Protection, Numerical Problem on Design of CT s Ratio, Buchholtz relay Protection.
Switchgear and Protection Notes Pdf – SGP Notes Pdf
UNIT – VI Feeder and Bus-Bar Protection
Protection of Lines: Over Current, Carrier Current and Three-zone distance relay protection using Impedance relays. Translate Relay. Protection of Bus bars – Differential protection.
UNIT – VII Neutral Grounding
Grounded and Ungrounded Neutral Systems.- Effects of Ungrounded Neutral on system performance. Methods of Neutral Grounding: Solid, Resistance, Reactance – Arcing Grounds and Grounding Practices.
UNIT – VIII Protection against overvoltages
Generation of Over Voltages in Power Systems.-Protection against Lightning Over Voltages – Valve type and Zinc-Oxide Lighting Arresters – Insulation Coordination -BIL, Impulse Ratio, Standard Impulse Test Wave, Volt-Time Characteristics.
TEXTBOOKS: Switchgear and Protection Notes – SGP Notes – SGP Pdf Notes
- Switchgear and Protection – by Sunil S Rao, Khanna Publishers
- Power System Protection and Switchgear by Badari Ram, D.N Viswakarma, TMH Publications
REFERENCE BOOKS: Switchgear and Protection Notes – SGP Notes – SGP Pdf Notes
- Fundamentals of Power System Protection by Paithankar and S.R.Bhide.,PHI, 2003
- Art & Science of Protective Relaying – by C R Mason, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
- Electrical Power Systems – by C.L.Wadhwa, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 3rd edition
- A Textbook on Power System Engineering by B.L.Soni, Gupta, Bhatnagar, Chakrabarthy, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
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