Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes pdf – ERTS Notes | Free Lecture Notes download

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Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes pdf | ERTS notes pdf | Embedded and Real Time Systems | Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes | ERTS Notes

Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes pdf – ERTS notes pdf file

Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes pdf – ERTS pdf notes – ERTS notes pdf file to download are below please check it –

Complete Notes

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Unit 1

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Unit 2

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Unit 3

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Unit 4

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Note :- These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU.In R13 and R15,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in R13 and R15 syllabus. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book.


Introduction to embedded computing and ARM processors ,embedded computing system,examples of embedded system,microprocessor varieties. Characteristics of embedded system,functional complexity,real-time operation,hard real time,soft real time,non functional requirements,need for microprocessor,embedded computing platform,physics of software. Challenges in embedded system design,design methodologies,design goals,levels of abstraction,top-down vs bottom-up,stepwise refinement,functional vs non functional requirements,requirement form,model train controller.


Computing platform and design analysis,bus based computer systems cpu buses,bus protocals,four cycle handshake,microprocesser bus,state diagram for bus read,bus multiplexing,direct memory access,bus mastership,DMA operation,system bus configurations,memory components,random access memory,programable ROM,flash memory,flash writing,types of flash,timers&counters,watch dog timer,7-segment Lcd display,types of high resolution display,touch screen,dual slope conversion,bus based computer systems.system architectures,hardware platform architecture, software architecture,adding logic to a board,software elements,debugging embedded systems,host based tools,cross compiler,cross debugger,software debuggers.


Process and operating systems multiple tasks and multiprocess,multirate systems,real time systems,dead line frequency,timing specifications on process,task graphs,process execution characteristics,cpu utilization,state of a process,hyperperiod,cyclostatic,TDMA Assumption,round robin,running periodic process,timed loop implementation,multiple time implementation,timer&counter implementation,operating systems,operating system structure,priority driven scheduling,process initiation disciplines,timing requirements on process,inter process communication,IPC styles,shared memory,message passing,race condition in shared memory.


System design techniques and networks,common design methodology,waterfall model,coding,testing,maintenance,concurrent engineering,requirements analysis. Definition of requirements,Definition of specification,objective of requirements,tools for good set of requirements,setting requirement. Control oriented specification languages state machine specification language (or) SDL language,state chart,common functionality,system analysis and architecture design,quality assurance,low quality products,QA techniques,CAN bus,CAN data frame,CAN controller,Automobile network,exponential back-off times.


Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: What are embedded system and real time system?

A1: Designed to perform a particular function in a larger system is called an embedded system. The system is an electronic device.

Real time systems work within the time limit strictly and gives a worst case time estimate for highly critical situation.

It is called real time embedded system because the embedded component works in a real time system.

Q2: What are the examples of real time system?

A2: Applications and examples of real-time systems are found everywhere these days and are increasing rapidly in numbers. They are tend to appear as a part of educational, medical, government, commercial, cultural as well as military infrastructure also. Some of the applications involved are,

  • Traffic control processor at railways tracks, shipping lanes, airspace and highways
  • Robot manufacturing systems
  • Games in computers
  • Graphics, audio/video interface, images, texts which constitute the entire multimedia system
  •  Consumer products (soft drinks and beer), Chemical and power plant process control
  •  Building managers which control entities such as doors, lights, elevators and heat
  •  Firing weapons, command/control and tracking which are usages in military aspects
  •  Vehicle systems which include subways, automobiles, ships, railways and aircraft
  •  Monitoring and controlling appliances at household systems
  • Satellite, radio and telephonic communication
  • Patient monitoring, radiation therapy and defibrillation in medical systems

Q3: Why is it called real time system?

A3: While functioning, a computer system might encounter with different constraints and need to meet various timing to finish the task. These constraints and other limitation with which it is interfaced are imposed on it by the external world’s real time behavior. Hence the name real time.

Q4: What are the different types of embedded system?


Types of embedded system

Q5: What are the characteristics of embedded system?

A5: Some of the characteristics of embedded system are,

  • The system does not require secondary memory in the computer. It has its own memory and the software generally embeds in ROM
  • The system is specialized to perform an operation which is repeated. There is no any other operation it needs to operate. For example, a pager is always a pager. It needs to function as pager
  • System connects the peripherals which connects input and output devices
  • System processes data in real time and consumed minimum power required which extends the battery life
  • System contained HW-SW System where software testing utilizes more features and flexibility and hardware utilizes performance and security.

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