Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Formal Languages and Automata Theory Pdf Notes – FLAT Notes Pdf materials with multiple file links to download. The Formal Languages and Automata Theory Notes Pdf – FLAT Pdf Notes book starts with the topics covering Strings, Alphabet, NFA with Î transitions, regular expressions, Regular grammars Regular grammars, Ambiguity in context free grammars, Push down automata, Turing Machine, Chomsky hierarchy of languages, Etc.

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**Note :-** These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU.In R13 and R15,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in R13 and R15 syllabus. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book.

**UNIT I**

Fundamentals : Strings, Alphabet, Language, Operations, Finite state machine, definitions, finite automaton model, acceptance of strings, and languages, deterministic finite automaton and non deterministic finite automaton, transition diagrams and Language recognizers.

**UNIT II**

Finite Automata : NFA with Î transitions – Significance, acceptance of languages. Conversions and Equivalence : Equivalence between NFA with and without Î transitions, NFA to DFA conversion, minimisation of FSM, equivalence between two FSM’s, Finite Automata with output- Moore and Melay machines.

**UNIT III**

Regular Languages : Regular sets, regular expressions, identity rules, Constructing finite Automata for a given regular expressions, Conversion of Finite Automata to Regular expressions. Pumping lemma of regular sets, closure properties of regular sets (proofs not required).

**UNIT IV**

Grammar Formalism : Regular grammars-right linear and left linear grammars, equivalence between regular linear grammar and FA, inter conversion, Context free grammar, derivation trees, sentential forms. Right most and leftmost derivation of strings.

### Formal Languages and Automata Theory Notes Pdf – FLAT Pdf Notes

**UNIT V**

Context Free Grammars : Ambiguity in context free grammars. Minimisation of Context Free Grammars. Chomsky normal form, Greiback normal form, Pumping Lemma for Context Free Languages. Enumeration of properties of CFL (proofs omitted).

**UNIT VI**

Push Down Automata : Push down automata, definition, model, acceptance of CFL, Acceptance by final state and acceptance by empty state and its equivalence. Equivalence of CFL and PDA, interconversion. (Proofs not required). Introduction to DCFL and DPDA.

**UNIT VII**

Turing Machine : Turing Machine, definition, model, design of TM, Computable functions, recursively enumerable languages. Church’s hypothesis, counter machine, types of Turing machines (proofs not required).

**UNIT VIII**

Computability Theory : Chomsky hierarchy of languages, linear bounded automata and context sensitive language, LR(0) grammar, decidability of, problems, Universal Turing Machine, undecidability of posts. Correspondence problem, Turing reducibility, Definition of P and NP problems, NP complete and NP hard problems.

**Text books –** Formal Languages & Automata Theory Notes – FLAT notes pdf – FLAT pdf notes – FLAT Pdf – FLAT Notes

1. Introduction to Computer Theory, Daniel I.A. Cohen, John Wiley.

2. Introduction to languages and the Theory of Computation ,John C Martin, TMH

3. “Elements of Theory of Computation”, Lewis H.P. & Papadimition C.H. Pearson /PHI.

4 Theory of Computer Science – Automata languages and computation -Mishra and Chandrashekaran, 2nd edition, PHI

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